The present study examines the vine symbol in Mandaeism, the only surviving Gnostic religion from ancient times. Most Mandaeans still live in their traditional areas in Southern Iraq and South-Western Iran, but a considerable number has lately moved to other countries. The vine is a significant symbol in this religion. It occurs very often in Mandaean literature compared to other Gnostic and Jewish writings, and the motif provides a broad variety of meanings, with "the Tree of Life" as the most important symbolic content. However, the vine symbol is connected to both dark and light beings or entities in the universe. In an appendix, the striking parallels between the Mandaean vine and Jesus' famous words about the vine in the Gospel of John are reconsidered. Jon Olav Ryen, born in 1960, is a theologian and works as a minister in the Church of Norway. He received the degree of Dr. Philos. at the University of Oslo in 2006.